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Thursday, June 14, 2018

Common Abbreviation in English You should Know

Prepared By: Entry Tep

In English studying we might be seen some abbreviations. Especially when we read some research context or some books. Sometimes it cause us waste more time if we don't understand it meaning of that abbreviation. Listed below is the popular abbreviation which we have met very often in research study.
*                     i.e. (id est) means �that is� or �in other words�.
It is used to paraphrase a statement that was just made, not to mean�for example�, and is always followed by a comma.
*                     e.g. (exempli gratia) means �for example�.
It is usually used to give an example of a statement that was just made and is always followed by a comma.
*                     viz. (videlicet) means �namely� or �more specifically��.
It is used to clarify a statement that was just made by providing more information and is never followed by a comma.)
*                     etc. (et cetera) means �and so forth� or �and so on�.
It is used to suggest that the reader should infer further examples from a list has been started and is usually not followed by a comma.
*                     et al. (et alii) means �and others�.
It is used in place of listing multiple authors past the first and is never followed by a comma. It�s also an abbreviation for et alibi means �and elsewhere�.
*                     cf. (conferre) means �compare to� or �see also�.
It is used either to draw a comparison or to refer the reader to somewhere they can find more information and is never followed by a comma.
*                     q.v. (quod vide) means �which see� or �go look it up if you�re interested�.
It is used to crossreference a different work or part of a work and is never followed by a comma. The plural form is �q.q.�
*                     v.s. (vide supra) means �see above�.
It is used to imply that more information can be found before the current point in a written work and is never followed by a comma.
*                     N.B. (Nota Bene) means �note well� or �pay attention to the following�.
It is used to imply that the wise reader will pay especially careful attention to the what follows and is never followed by a comma.
*                     vs. (versus) means �against� or �in contrast to�.
It is used to contrast two things and is never followed by a comma.)
*                     c. (circa) means �around� or �near�.


It is used when giving an approximation, usually for a date, and is never followed by a comma. It�s also commonly written as �ca.�, �cir., or �circ.�)


Source: Aladin

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